PhD Studentship in “Modelling of the Droplet Spreading and Solidification during Liquid Metal Jetting 3D Printing"

Division of Manufacturing & Process Technologies

The University of Nottingham’s Faculty of Engineering is one of the premier engineering faculties in the UK. The 2014-15 Times Higher Education World University Rankings for Engineering and Technology Teaching placed Nottingham as 7th in the UK and 74th in the world for teaching, research and international outlook. The last Research Excellent Framework recognised that more than 98% of research conducted in the Faculty was of international quality, with 85% graded as world-leading or internationally excellent.

Applications are invited for a fully funded PhD studentship (3 years) to work as part of the Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing Research Group (3DPRG). Located within the Faculty of Engineering, the 3DPRG is widely regarded as the world’s leading Centre for Additive Manufacturing research, development and dissemination.

Liquid metal jetting 3D printing is a novel technology developed by the 3DPRG in collaboration with Océ-Technologies B.V.  Liquid metal jetting 3D printing will enable the fabrication of functional components designed to combine the properties of multiple metals. It is envisaged that this technology, exclusive to the 3DPRG, will open up a number of exciting opportunities including, but not limited to, the fabrication of novel electrical conductive componentry, new generation 3D smart devices and structural multi-functional components.

The success of the technology will rely on the adhesion of dispensed metal droplets on solid substrate or pre-deposited droplet patterns. The aim of the project associated with the advertised scholarship is thus to develop a comprehensive model that describes the spreading, cooling and solidification of a metal droplet impacting a solid substrate or pre-deposited droplets. The model will be used to predict how metals of different surface and bulk properties couple and will serve to identify optimal processing conditions for the liquid metal jetting 3D printing. The research will necessarily involve the modelling of the heat transfer between the liquid metal droplets contacting the solid surface. The project will provide a greater understanding of the spreading of the droplets upon impact which is function of contact temperature, material composition and surface properties of the materials. This research will be conducted within a wider research team comprising of academics, post-doctoral researchers and technical staff. Operating as part of a collaborative aim, this project will build on experimental evidence obtained within the group.

The studentship will cover PhD tuition fees (at the UK/EU rate) and a tax free stipend for three years (£13,863 for the 2014-15 academic year). Students must have a first or upper second class academic qualification in Engineering, Physics or a related subject. A Master’s degree in a similar discipline and/or experience in Additive Manufacturing and computer programming will be an advantage.

Please direct informal enquiries to Prof Richard Hague, via Jill Thurman, email:

To make an application, please send a covering letter stating clearly how you fulfil the requirements of the studentship, your research interests and include a CV, academic transcripts and the names and addresses of two academic referees, to

Please quote ref: ENG864    

The position will remain open until filled. 

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PhD Studentship in “Modelling of the Droplet Spreading and Solidification during Liquid Metal Jetting 3D Printing"